Campestanol health benefit
Campestanol is the 5 alpha stanol of campesterol.
Analysis of plant sterol and stanol esters in
cholesterol-lowering spreads and beverages using high-performance liquid
chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy.
J Agric Food Chem. 2003. Mezine I, Macku C, Lijana R. A. M. Todd Group, Montgomeryville, PA, USA.
Plant sterol and stanol esters were separated on a Luna hexyl-phenyl column using a gradient of acetonitrile (90-100%) in water. The eluted compounds were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectroscopy (MS) in the positive mode. Sterol and stanol esters produced [M + H - HOOCR](+) ions. Application of the hyphenated technique-LC-MS-allowed differentiation between a number of esters of sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and avenasterol, as well as sitostanol and campestanol esters. With cholesteryl decanoate used as the internal standard, the method showed good linearity, precision, and reproducibility. The method required minimal sample pretreatment and can be applied to samples with high water content (juices) as well as samples with high oil content (margarine spreads). The method could be useful for the analysis of sterol and stanol esters in fortified food products.
Comparison of the intestinal uptake of cholesterol, plant
sterols, and stanols in mice.
J Lipid Res. 2003; Igel M, Giesa U, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Germany.
The recent identification of the aberrant transport proteins ABCG5 and ABCG8 resulting in sitosterolemia suggests that intestinal uptake of cholesterol is an unselective process, and that discrimination between cholesterol and plant sterols takes place at the level of sterol efflux from the enterocyte. Although plant sterols are structurally very similar to cholesterol, differing only in their side chain length, they are absorbed from the intestine to a markedly lower extent. In order to further evaluate the process of discrimination, three different sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, sitosterol) and their corresponding 5 alpha-stanols (cholestanol, campestanol, sitostanol) were compared concerning their concentration in the proximal small intestine, in serum, and in bile after a single oral dose of deuterated compounds. The data obtained support the hypothesis that i) the uptake of sterols and stanols is an extremely rapid process, ii) discrimination probably takes place on the level of reverse transport back into the gut lumen, iii) plant stanols are taken up, but not absorbed to a measurable extent, and iv) the process of discrimination probably also exists at the level of biliary excretion. The range of structural alterations that decrease intestinal absorption and increase biliary excretion is: 1) campesterol, 2) cholestanol-sitosterol, and 3) campestanol-sitostanol.